Abstract: Progressive optimization introduces robustness for database workloads against wrong estimates, skewed data, correlated attributes, or outdated statistics. Previous work focuses on cardinality estimates and rely on expensive counting methods as well as complex learning algorithms. In this paper, we utilize performance counters to drive progressive optimization during query execution. The main advantages are that performance counters introduce virtually no costs on modern CPUs and their usage enables a noninvasive monitoring. We present fine-grained cost models to detect differences between estimates and actual costs which enables us to kick-start reoptimization. Based on our cost models, we implement an optimization approach that estimates the individual selectivities of a multi-selection query efficiently. Furthermore, we are able to learn properties like sortedness, skew, or correlation during run-time. In our evaluation we show, that the overhead of our approach is negligible, while performance improvements are convincing. Using progressive optimization, we improve runtime up to a factor of three compared to average run-times and up to a factor of 4,5 compared to worst case run-times. As a result, we avoid costly operator execution orders and; thus, making query execution highly robust.